What is Biology?
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The term ‘Biology’ for the study of living organisms was first used in 1801 AD by two scientists named Lamarck and Trevirenus. Biology is that branch of science, under which all living organisms are studied in detail. The origin of living organisms, their development, activities, their composition, the effect of the environment on them and their interactions are studied under biology.
Who is the father of biology?
The credit for establishing biology as a branch of science goes to Aristotle. He studied a lot in the field of science, mainly in the field of biology.
For this reason Aristotle is also called the Father of Biology.
branches of biology
Botany and Zoology are two branches of biology.
The study of animals is done under Zoology. Aristotle’s book Historia Animalisme, in which the first 500 animals have been described, is why Aristotle is called the Father of Zoology.
Under Botany, the study of plants, that is, plants, is done. The book Historia Plantarum, written by Theophrastos, in which the first 500 trees and plants are described, is why Theophrastos is called the Father of Botany.
Under Biology, animals and their activities are studied. The science of living beings is biology. Whereas both dead and living organisms are studied in zoology, the branch of biology. On the basis of life there are two types of living beings – living and non-living.
The science of living beings is biology. All those organisms, including respiration, digestion,Are called.
The following properties are present in living things :-
(1) Respiration – The process in which the oxidation of food substances takes place, as a result of which energy is produced in the mitochondria, hence the mitochondria is called the cellular respiration site and the energy house of the cell.
C6H12 O6 + O2 Co2 + H2O + 673k/Cal In the process of respiration, complex molecules are broken down into simpler molecules when under the influence of oxygen, hence the process of respiration is called catabolism.
(2) Breathing – Mammals have a pair of lungs, which are located in the thoracic cavity, the lungs are filled with air at a certain rate, which is called breathing. This process is completed in 2 steps.
a) Inspiration – In this state the air from the external environment enters the organs of the body, ie – the lungs. In this stage, the ribs and sternum are pulled upward (outward) and the diaphragm contracts and flattens.
b) Expiration – The coming of air containing CO 2 to the external environment through the body parts.
(3) Definite Life Cycle The life cycle of all living things – birth, growth → reproduction → death, is completed only in these events.
(4) Reproduction – The ability of living organisms to give birth to similar organisms like themselves is called reproduction. This is the most important quality of living beings. If the creatures of the whole world continue to reproduce, then the whole world will be filled in no time, but life conflicts and epidemic disasters by nature are keeping this level (problem) normal. Locomotion – The skeletal system and muscles of humans and animals are helpful in moving.
( 6) Excretion – The process of removing harmful substances made in the human body out of the body is called excretion. Some organs in the human body continue to work continuously for excretion. i) Sweat glands remove sweat from the body.
iv) Kidney removes nitrogenous waste (urea) from the body. Breams
ii) Sebaceous glands expel sebum (oil) from the body
iii) Lungs remove carbon dioxide from the body.
The underlying and practical unit of all living things is called cell. Based on cell association, living creatures are of 2 sorts
(1) One-celled organism :- Amoeba, Paramecium.
(2) multicellular Organisms – Humans, animals and plants.
Plant Cell ChlorophyII is found in plant cells. Centrosome is not found in plant cell. Animal cell is not found in animal cell. In animal cells, there is a centrosome near the nucleus, which helps in cell division. Lysosomes are found in animal cells. Lysosome is often not found in plant cells. A plant cell has a vacuole or a vacuole. The taxa of plant cells are almost rectangular. Plant cells are autotrophic. Animal cells do not have vacuoles or vacuoles. Most animal cells are circular in shape. Animal cells are heterotrophic. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the plant cell. Plant cell grows till the end of life, photosynthesis process does not take place in plant cell. After a certain period of time, the growth of the animal cell stops.
classification of organisms
Swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus Linnaeus has made a major contribution to the modern classification of organisms. Two Kingdoms Classification
Carolus Linnaeus in his book Systema laid the foundation of Plant kingdom and Animal kingdom. Therefore Carolus Linnaeus in Taxonomy divided the whole living organisms into two kingdoms, leading to the modern classification system of Taxonomy. Also called Five Kingdoms Classification
The most valid concept of classification was presented by Whittaker, under which living beings are divided into five kingdoms.
Kingdom of Protists Kingdom of Monerans algae bacteria protozoans Kingdom of Fungi Kingdom of Plants Kingdom of Animals insect mushroom yeast broad-leaved tree horse aahoo mold fern moss earthworm sponge 33 conifer tree w squid
Nomenclature of Animals
It was Carolus Linnaeus who introduced the Dinomus Method of naming organisms. According to this method, the scientific name of each organism is made up of 2 words of Latin language – Generic Name and Species Name. After the names of the genus and species, the name of the taxonomist (scientist) is written, who first discovered that species or who first gave the current name to that species, e.g. Homo sapiens Linn (Homo sapiens Linn). ) Is . Actually Homo is the name of his lineage, whose species name is Sapiens. Scientific Name = Generic Name + Species Name